TG-1 * Transgallaxys Forum 1
- March 12, 2014, 01:40:57 AM
- Welcome, Guest
FRAUENPOWER! / ~~~ FRAUENPOWER! ~~~ / SOS!! Help find these girls before they are found dead, alert all media!
on: March 10, 2014, 11:50:19 AM
|Started by FRAUENPOWER - Last post by FRAUENPOWER|
Euromaidan PR @EuromaidanPR
SOS!! Help find these girls before they are found dead, alert all media in Crimea.
Dumm wie ein Deutscher / Politischer Analphabetismus / Die EU als Inbegriff des kriminellen Soziopathen
on: March 08, 2014, 01:52:12 PM
|Started by Krant - Last post by Krant|
Das ist die Meldung:
Die EU will wissen, wer im Internet lügt
Computertaste mit dem Symbol der EU(Quelle: imago)
von Giuseppe Paletta
Die Europäische Union will wissen, welche Informationen im Internet wahr und welche falsch sind. Dazu finanziert sie das Forschungsprojekt “Pheme“: Wissenschaftler verschiedener EU-Länder arbeiten an einer Software, die in Echtzeit öffentliche Quellen auf ihren Wahrheitsgehalt hin überprüfen soll.
Soziale Netzwerke seien bislang dazu genutzt worden, falsche Anschuldigungen zu verbreiten, heißt es in der Projektbeschreibung. Als Beispiel werden die Meldungen über Wahlbetrug in Kenia oder die Behauptungen, Barack Obama wäre ein Muslim, genannt.
Mehr Netzthemen: Hyperland
“Soziale Netzwerke stellen auch nützliche Informationen zur Verfügung, das Problem ist aber, dass alles so schnell geht und wir nicht sofort Wahrheiten von Lügen unterscheiden können”, sagt Kalina Bontcheva von der Universität Sheffield. Das mache es schwierig, auf Gerüchte zu reagieren, zum Beispiel für Rettungsdienste, wenn diese über einen Einsatz entscheiden müssten.
Deshalb arbeiten Universitäten aus Deutschland, Österreich und Großbritannien zusammen mit verschiedenen IT-Unternehmen an der Entwicklung einer Echtzeit-Analysesoftware. In spätestens drei Jahren soll die Software fertig sein und sowohl Informationen als auch Informationsgeber, wie Twitter-Nutzer oder Blogger, analysieren und bewerten. Geht es nach der EU, dann soll die Software Internetbeiträge selbstständig in vier Klassen einteilen: Spekulationen, umstrittene Informationen, falsche Informationen und bewusste Fehlinformationen.
Alles was öffentlich zugänglich ist, wird analysiert
Auch die Anwender hinter den Informationen sollen analysiert werden: “Die Software wird Quellen automatisch in Kategorien einteilen“. So soll sie Internetnutzer in Kategorien wie Journalisten, potentielle Augenzeugen, Experten, Personen des öffentlichen Lebens oder Bots einteilen. Die Software soll die Verbreitung von Informationen rückverfolgen und selbst entscheiden können, ob eine Information wahr oder falsch ist.
“Wir analysieren nur öffentlich zugängliche Informationen in sozialen Netzwerken, Blogs oder Foren. Wir werden alle Informationen, die wir über Personen sammeln, offenlegen”, sagte die Projektverantwortliche Kalina Bontcheva von der Universität Sheffield auf Anfrage von Hyperland. Arno Scharl von der privaten Modul University Vienna fügte hinzu: “Falsche bzw. unwahre Informationen sollen weder gelöscht noch blockiert werden. Es gibt daher eigentlich auch keine ‘betroffenen’ Benutzer, da keinerlei Eingriff stattfindet und wir ausschließlich öffentliche und daher auch datenschutzrechtlich unbedenkliche Inhalte wie Twitter-Postings verarbeiten.”
Noch ganz am Anfang
Weitere Links zum Thema
Twitter stellt sich Fragen zu mäßigen
Deutschlands Traum von der Breitband-Weltspitze
Geschichte erleben mit Twitter und Facebook
Die Software soll zunächst von Medienhäusern wie dem SWR oder der Schweizerischen Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft getestet werden. Zusätzlich untersuche die Universität London, inwiefern falsche medizinische Informationen über Medikamente oder Therapien im Internet von Klinikpatienten genutzt würden und wie man diese Informationen unterbinden könnte.
Wohin sich das Projekt entwickeln wird, hängt auch von den offiziell beteiligten Unternehmen ab. Neben dem Big-Data Unternehmen Atos aus Spanien sind noch weitere IT-Dienstleister, wie zum Beispiel Ontotext aus Bulgarien im Projekt "Pheme" involviert. Und auch Kenias Technologie-Projekt iHub ist am EU-Projekt “Pheme” beteiligt. Das EU-Projekt steht noch ganz am Anfang, wer auf dem Laufenden bleiben will, kann sich in einen Verteiler eintragen.
Das Programm würde an jeder Politikerrede und jedem Parteiprogramm scheitern. Zu viele Lügen und zu viel kriminelle Energie...
Ausgerechnet die Lügner in Brüssel wollen Lügen untersuchen? Ein Blick in den Spiegel reicht doch!
on: March 07, 2014, 11:23:44 PM
|Started by FRAUENPOWER - Last post by FRAUENPOWER|
Herzlich Willkommen beim Heimwegtelefon
Unsere Telefonnummer: 03012074182
Viele kennen die Situation: Es ist spät am Abend und kaum jemand auf der Straße. Wenn man nun noch alleine auf dem Weg nach Hause ist, kann jedes Geräusch Panik hervorrufen. Die Angst vor einem Überfall ist größer als bei Tag oder in Begleitung.
Für mehr Sicherheit soll die Telefonhotline “Heimwegtelefon” sorgen. Freiwillige sitzen hier an der Leitung, um diejenigen nach Hause zu begleiten, die nachts alleine auf der Straße sind. Zu Beginn des Telefonats teilt der Anrufer mit, wo er sich befindet und was sein Ziel ist. Dann folgt ein nettes Gespräch, das die Laufzeit verkürzt. In regelmäßigen Abständen wird der aktuelle Standort in Erfahrung gebracht.
Heimwegtelefon verfolgt besonders zwei Ziele: Gespräche, die Sicherheit vermitteln und Angreifer abschrecken, und Präsenz, um zu reagieren, wenn der Ernstfall eintritt.
on: March 07, 2014, 11:12:38 PM
|Started by Yulli - Last post by Yulli|
Stunning Pictures @PicturesEarth
Ceiling art in smoking room! pic.twitter.com/2fXi2JHyaK
on: March 07, 2014, 04:26:01 PM
|Started by Yulli - Last post by Yulli|
Looking for my birth mother.
She gave birth to me 15th. September 1986.
She abandoned me in the Burger King bathroom only hours old, Allentown, PA.
Please help me find her by sharing my post.
Maybe she will see this.
on: March 07, 2014, 04:21:51 PM
|Started by Yulli - Last post by Yulli|
on: March 07, 2014, 03:35:01 PM
|Started by Yulli - Last post by Yulli|
Hier fehlt ein Unterforum über den faschischen Köprper- und Sportwahn!
Boxunterricht an einer deutschen Schule. Da werden Kinder reingezwungen! Diese Nazischeisse muss weg!
How the NFL Worked to Hide the Truth about Concussions and Brain Damage [Excerpt]
The NFL not only publicly denied evidence that long-term brain damage could result from concussions suffered by its players, but worked to undercut it
Mar 7, 2014 |By Mark Fainaru-Wada and Steve Fainaru
Excerpted with permission from League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions and the Battle for Truth, by Mark Fainaru-Wada and Steve Fainaru. Available from Crown Archetype/Random House, LLC. Copyright © 2013.
September 28, 2002, is one of the most significant dates in the history of American sports. You won’t find it in the record books.
That morning, on a stainless steel autopsy table inside the Allegheny County coroner’s office in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, lay the body of Mike Webster, the legendary center of the Pittsburgh Steelers. He had been stripped to his blue jeans, and his stomach had been injected with embalming fluid. Even in death, Webster looked formidable, with a muscular thickness from head to foot, a body that seemed designed to absorb and mete out punishment. But on closer inspection, it was a body that showed horrific signs of wear. Late in Webster’s life, his personal physician had noticed that the skin on his forehead had become “fixed to his scalp,” a shelf of scar tissue built up over 17 years of pro football. Odd bulges protruded from his back, varicose veins spidered down his legs, and deep cracks ran along the bottoms of his feet. His fingers were thick and crooked like splayed branches. Webster’s ex-wife, peering into his casket, had noticed that his fingers remained curled so that “it looked like he was still holding a football.” Webster was 50 years old when he died, but a lot of people thought he looked 70.
Five years earlier, when Webster was...
on: March 06, 2014, 03:19:35 PM
|Started by ama - Last post by ama|
Normalerweise ist man bei statistischen Daten etwas zurückhaltender in der Kommentierung, ich weiß. Aber bei so rotzfrechen Lügnern wie gewissen Homöopathen, die selbst sterbenden Neugeborenen noch ihren Dreck antun, und von einer zunehmenden Begeisterung der Menschen für Homöopathie lügen, ist es notwendig, mit der gebotenen Härte gegenzuhalten.
Homöopathie kracht in Großbritannien auf die Schnauze
Ein Absturz auf 1/9! Von zunehmender Begeisterung kann also keine Rede sein.
In dem Bild sind zwei URLs angegeben. Hier die angegebene Grafik:
Dies ist der PDF-Artikel:
Our ref: NIC-177852-1TNMG
14 th January 2013
Re: Information Request – Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 2000
I can confirm that the Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) has considered
your query dated the 19 th December 2012.
Many thanks for your request. I have answered your questions, in turn, below:
Please can I have a breakdown of overall spend by the NHS on homeopathic remedies for
each of the past five years (2007-2012 up until this request has been answered)?
Please can you tell me how many homeopathic prescriptions were approved by the NHS in
each of these years and a breakdown of the prescription costs for each of these years?
In response to the two questions above, the table below gives the total net ingredient cost and
the number of items dispensed, for all prescriptions for homoeopathic preparations dispensed
in the community in England, in the calendar years and part-year listed. There was no use of
these preparations in our information on drug-use within hospitals.
Source: Prescription Cost Analysis (PCA)
* Data for 6 months only, January to June; later data is not currently available.
Please note, Homoeopathic remedies have been defined as those prescriptions listed in
British National Formulary (BNF) paragraph 19.2.3 as ‘homoeopathic preparations’Please can I have a breakdown of overall spend by the NHS on homeopathic research for
each of the past five years (2007-2012 up until this request has been answered)?
Unfortunately, the HSCIC does not hold the above requested information.
If possible, please can I have a breakdown of how much the NHS spends on homeopathy in
each region of the United Kingdom for each of the past five years (2007-2012 up until this
request has been answered)?
We have taken that ‘in each region of the United Kingdom’ means by individual country
(Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales). Unfortunately, the HSCIC is unable to supply
prescribing information relating to these areas. Our prescribing information covers
prescriptions dispensed in England only.
Prescribing information for these countries is available from the corresponding bodies for each
region - website addresses are given below.
In line with the Information Commissioner’s directive on the disclosure of information under
the Freedom of Information Act 2000 your request will form part of our disclosure log.
Therefore, a version of our response which will protect your anonymity will be posted on the
I trust you are satisfied with our response to your request for information. However, if you are
not satisfied, you may request a review from a suitably qualified member of staff not involved
in the initial query, via the firstname.lastname@example.org e mail address or by post at the above postal
I will assume that your request to the organisation is now closed.
Higher Information Governance Officer
Further information about your right to complain under the Freedom of Information Act is available from
the Information Commissioner’s Office, Wilmslow, Cheshire, and on The Information Commissioner’s
The Health and Social Care Information Centre values customer feedback and would appreciate a
moment of your time to respond to our Freedom of Information (FOI) Survey to let us know about your
experience. Please access the survey through this link
https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/HSCIC FOI Feedback
on: March 06, 2014, 01:12:12 PM
|Started by Borodor - Last post by Borodor|
THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release March 6, 2014
- - - - - -
BLOCKING PROPERTY OF CERTAIN PERSONS CONTRIBUTING
TO THE SITUATION IN UKRAINE
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) (IEEPA), the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) (NEA), section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (8 U.S.C. 1182(f)), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code,
I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, find that the actions and policies of persons — including persons who have asserted governmental authority in the Crimean region without the authorization of the Government of Ukraine — that undermine democratic processes and institutions in Ukraine; threaten its peace, security, stability, sovereignty, and territorial integrity; and contribute to the misappropriation of its assets, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States, and I hereby declare a national emergency to deal with that threat. I hereby order:
Section 1. (a) All property and interests in property that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of any United States person (including any foreign branch) of the following persons are blocked and may not be transferred, paid, exported, withdrawn, or otherwise dealt in: any person determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State:
(i) to be responsible for or complicit in, or to have engaged in, directly or indirectly, any of the following:
(A) actions or policies that undermine democratic processes or institutions in Ukraine;
(B) actions or policies that threaten the peace, security, stability, sovereignty, or territorial integrity of Ukraine; or
(C) misappropriation of state assets of Ukraine or of an economically significant entity in Ukraine;
(ii) to have asserted governmental authority over any part or region of Ukraine without the authorization of the Government of Ukraine;
(iii) to be a leader of an entity that has, or whose members have, engaged in any activity described in subsection (a)(i) or (a)(ii) of this section or of an entity whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order;
(iv) to have materially assisted, sponsored, or provided financial, material, or technological support for, or goods or services to or in support of, any activity described in subsection (a)(i) or (a)(ii) of this section or any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order; or
(v) to be owned or controlled by, or to have acted or purported to act for or on behalf of, directly or indirectly, any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order.
(b) The prohibitions in subsection (a) of this section apply except to the extent provided by statutes, or in regulations, orders, directives, or licenses that may be issued pursuant to this order, and notwithstanding any contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date of this order.
Sec. 2. I hereby find that the unrestricted immigrant and nonimmigrant entry into the United States of aliens determined to meet one or more of the criteria in subsection 1(a) of this order would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and I hereby suspend entry into the United States, as immigrants or nonimmigrants, of such persons. Such persons shall be treated as persons covered by section 1 of Proclamation 8693 of July 24, 2011 (Suspension of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency Economic Powers Act Sanctions).
Sec. 3. I hereby determine that the making of donations of the type of articles specified in section 203(b)(2) of IEEPA (50 U.S.C. 1702(b)(2)) by, to, or for the benefit of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to section 1 of this order would seriously impair my ability to deal with the national emergency declared in this order, and I hereby prohibit such donations as provided by section 1 of this order.
Sec. 4. The prohibitions in section 1 of this order include but are not limited to:
(a) the making of any contribution or provision of funds, goods, or services by, to, or for the benefit of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order; and
(b) the receipt of any contribution or provision of funds, goods, or services from any such person.
Sec. 5. (a) Any transaction that evades or avoids, has the purpose of evading or avoiding, causes a violation of, or attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this order is prohibited.
(b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this order is prohibited.
Sec. 6. For the purposes of this order:
(a) the term “person” means an individual or entity;
(b) the term “entity” means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or other organization; and
(c) the term “United States person” means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States (including foreign branches), or any person in the United States.
Sec. 7. For those persons whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to this order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, I find that because of the ability to transfer funds or other assets instantaneously, prior notice to such persons of measures to be taken pursuant to this order would render those measures ineffectual. I therefore determine that for these measures to be effective in addressing the national emergency declared in this order, there need be no prior notice of a listing or determination made pursuant to section 1 of this order.
Sec. 8. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, is hereby authorized to take such actions, including the promulgation of rules and regulations, and to employ all powers granted to the President by IEEPA, as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this order. The Secretary of the Treasury may redelegate any of these functions to other officers and agencies of the United States Government consistent with applicable law. All agencies of the United States Government are hereby directed to take all appropriate measures within their authority to carry out the provisions of this order.
Sec. 9. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, is hereby authorized to submit the recurring and final reports to the Congress on the national emergency declared in this order, consistent with section 401(c) of the NEA (50 U.S.C. 1641(c)) and section 204(c) of IEEPA (50 U.S.C. 1703(c)).
Sec. 10. This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
THE WHITE HOUSE,
March 6, 2014.
# # #
Dumm wie ein Deutscher / Politischer Analphabetismus / Putin? Wer ist schon Putin!? Die EU überholt Putin von rechts!
on: March 05, 2014, 01:59:50 PM
|Started by NoRPthun - Last post by NoRPthun|
Alle greifen Putin an wegen der Krim. Aber wer ist schon Putin!? Die EU überholt Putin von rechts! "Intolerante Personen" sollen kaltgestellt werden. Macht Putin nicht genau das Gleiche?
A EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK NATIONAL STATUTE
FOR THE PROMOTION OF TOLERANCE
SUBMITTED WITH A VIEW TO BEING
ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURES
OF EUROPEAN STATES
Whereas respect for human dignity is based on recognition of human
diversity and the inherent right of every person to be different,
Whereas tolerance postulates an open mind to unfamiliar ideas and ways
Whereas the concept of tolerance is the opposite of any form of unlawful
Whereas tolerance has a vital role in enabling successful coexistence of
diverse groups within a single national society,
Whereas such coexistence enriches and strengthens the fabric of the
national society, it should not affect the basic identity of that
society or its shared values, history, aspirations and goals,
Whereas integration within a single national society does not mean
Whereas coexistence and cooperation within a democratic society require
that individuals and groups make mutual concessions to each other,
Whereas respect for the distinctive characteristics of diverse groups
should not weaken the common bonds of responsible citizenship
within a democratic and open society as a whole,
1Be it therefore enacted as follows:
Section 1. Definitions
For the purposes of this Statute:
(a) "Group" means: a number of people joined by racial or cultural
roots, ethnic origin or descent, religious affiliation or linguistic
links, gender identity or sexual orientation, or any other
characteristics of a similar nature.
(b) "Group libel" means: defamatory comments made in public and
aimed against a group as defined in paragraph (a) – or members
thereof – with a view to inciting to violence, slandering the group,
holding it to ridicule or subjecting it to false charges.
(i) This definition covers "blood libels" and anti-Semitic slurs, as well
as allegations that, e.g., "gypsies are thieves" or "Moslems are
(ii) It must be understood that the "group libel" may appear to be
aimed at members of the group in a different time (another
historical era) or place (beyond the borders of the State).
(c) "Hate crimes" means: any criminal act however defined, whether
committed against persons or property, where the victims or targets
are selected because of their real or perceived connection with - or
support or membership of - a group as defined in paragraph (a).
(d) "Tolerance" means: respect for and acceptance of the expression,
preservation and development of the distinct identity of a group as
defined in paragraph (a). This definition is without prejudice to the
principle of coexistence of diverse groups within a single society.
Explanatory notes must be viewed as an authentic interpretation of the text of the
Framework Statute. Where appropriate, they should also serve as a basis for either
primary or secondary legislation.
Coexistence of diverse groups within a single society requires, inter
alia, some knowledge of local language as a means of communication
with authorities and the social environment.
Section 2. Purpose
The purpose of this Statute is to:
(a) Promote tolerance within society without weakening the
common bonds tying together a single society.
(b) Foster tolerance between different societies.
(c) Eliminate hate crimes as defined in Section 1(c).
(d) Condemn all manifestations of intolerance based on bias,
bigotry and prejudice.
(e) Take concrete action to combat intolerance, in particular with a
view to eliminating racism, colour bias, ethnic discrimination,
religious intolerance, totalitarian ideologies, xenophobia, anti-
Semitism, anti-feminism and homophobia.
This formulation does not go into detail within the subsets
listed. Thus, religious intolerance is understood to cover
Islamophobia, anti-Christianity, etc. Ethnic discrimination is
understood to cover anti-Roma (gypsies) activities.
Anti-Semitism is listed as a separate subset since it crosses the
lines of various subsets. It is certainly not confined to religious
intolerance (conversion did not save Jews from extermination
under the Nazis).
Section 3. Guaranties of Rights
Tolerance (as defined in Section 1(d)) shall be guaranteed towards any
group (as defined in Section 1(a)), especially in the enjoyment of the
following human rights:
The list of the human rights enumerated below is non-
The rights, as listed below, have to be interpreted in a broad
It is important to stress that tolerance must be practised not
only by Governmental bodies but equally by individuals,
including members of one group vis-à-vis another.
Guarantee of tolerance must be understood not only as a
vertical relationship (Government-to-individuals) but also as a
horizontal relationship (group-to-group and person-to-person).
It is the obligation of the Government to ensure that intolerance
is not practised either in vertical or in horizontal relationships
(a) Freedom of expression, including freedom to seek, receive and
impart information and ideas - regardless of frontiers – either
orally, in writing or in print, and through any broadcasting or
electronic media (including the Internet).
(b) Freedom of religion and belief, expressed either individually or
in community with others, including:
freedom to manifest that religion or belief in worship,
observance, rituals, rites, practice and teaching; and
(ii) freedom to change or opt out of one's religion.
(c) Freedom of association with other members of the group, with a
view to promoting its special culture, way of life, religion or
(d) Freedom of peaceful assembly, including non-violent parades
(e) Freedom to vote and to run for elections, subject to general
prescriptions such as citizenship, minimum age and residence.
(f) Freedom to take part in the conduct of public affairs, including
access to civil service, subject to general prescriptions as
regards citizenship and general qualifications.
(g) Right to acquire nationality based on birth or long-term
(h) Freedom of movement.
(i) Right to privacy.
(j) Freedom of access to professions, subject to general
qualifications, and to individual economic activities.
(k) Freedom of education in the language of the group, as well as in
accordance with its religious and cultural traditions.
(l) Right to equal participation in general cultural activities.
(m) Right to own and to inherit property.
(n) Right to housing.
4(o) Right to work, including free choice of employment and equal
pay for equal work.
(p) Right to medical care and social insurance.
Section 4. Limitations
The rights guaranteed in Section 3 are subject to the following
limitations, applied in a proportionate manner as necessary in a
The list of limitations as enumerated below is exhaustive.
The limitations, as listed below, have to be interpreted in a
The limitations are enumerated here in a generic fashion. Not
every right or sub-right guaranteed in Section 3 is necessarily
subject to every limitation mentioned here.
(a) National or international security.
Tolerance must not be used as a means for the condoning terrorism or
as a cover for those seeking to subvert domestic or international peace
(b) Ordre public.
A prime example: it must be understood that demonstrations (in
exercise of freedom of assembly) need not be tolerated when
they are likely to degenerate into riots or infringe on the rights
Another example is that, given the need to fight crime, persons
may not be allowed to cover their faces in public.
Ordre public is not confined to issues of crime and violence.
Thus, city planning and zoning rules may override an attempt
to build a place of worship on a particular site.
(c) Public policy.
5Tolerance does not mean that a group can segregate itself from society
as a whole, repudiating the need to interface with other groups.
(d) Public morals.
Examples: tolerance does not denote acceptance of such practices as
female circumcision, forced marriage, polygamy or any form of
exploitation or domination of women.
(e) Public health.
Example: the Court of Appeal in England (per Lord Denning) found no
fault with the refusal of a chocolate-making factory to employ a
bearded Sikh in view of a hazard of contamination by bacteria.
(f) Protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
Tolerance is a two-way street. Members of a group who wish to
benefit from tolerance must show it to society at large, as well
as to members of other groups and to dissidents or other
members of their own group.
There is no need to be tolerant to the intolerant. This is
especially important as far as freedom of expression is
concerned: that freedom must not be abused to defame other
Section 5. Migrants
(a) Tolerance (as defined in Section 1(d)) must be guaranteed to
any group (as defined in Section 1(a)), whether it has long-
standing societal roots or it is recently formed, especially as a
result of migration from abroad.
(b) Foreign migrants, for their part, must adhere to the principle of
coexistence of diverse groups within a single society.
(c) If a foreign migrant - who has been admitted into the territory of
the State but has not acquired citizenship – is clearly unwilling
to comply with the principle of coexistence of diverse groups
within a single national society, he or she may be obliged to
6leave the State (subject to applicable international legal
Under Article 3 of Protocol 4 to the European Convention for
the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms,
"No one shall be expelled ... from the territory of the State of
which he is a national". Obviously, once a new migrant has
acquired nationality, paragraph (c) is no longer applicable.
Even with non-nationals, it is necessary to bear in mind that,
under Article 4 of the same Protocol, "collective expulsion of
aliens is prohibited". The decision whether a new migrant has
forfeited the right to remain within the State must therefore be
made on an individual basis through an appropriate judicial or
The right to expel migrant workers who "offend against public
interest or morality" is explicitly expressed in Article 19(8) of
the European Social Charter.
The question whether a foreign migrant is clearly unwilling to
comply with the principle of coexistence of diverse groups
within a single national society is an issue of fact, which has to
be determined by a judicial or quasi-judicial authority.
Upon admission to the State, foreign migrants may be required
to sign a statement in which they confirm that they are aware of
the provision included in paragraph (c).
Section 6. Implementation
To ensure implementation of this Statute, the Government shall:
It goes without saying that enactment of a Statute for the Promotion of
Tolerance does not suffice by itself. There must be a mechanism in place
ensuring that the Statute does not remain on paper and is actually
implemented in the world of reality.
(a) Be responsible for the special protection of vulnerable and
Members of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups are entitled to a
special protection, additional to the general protection that has to
be provided by the Government to every person within the State.
The special protection afforded to members of vulnerable and
disadvantaged groups may imply a preferential treatment. Strictly
speaking, this preferential treatment goes beyond mere respect and
acceptance lying at the root of tolerance (see the definition of
tolerance in Section 1(d)). Still, the present provision is justified by
the linkage between historical intolerance and vulnerability.
The answer to the question which group is vulnerable or
disadvantaged in a particular society varies from one country to
(b) Without prejudice to existing control mechanism, set up a
special administrative unit in order to supervise the
implementation of this Statute.
The implementation of this provision depends on the existing
structure in any given State. In any country which has already set
up an administrative body vested with general competence to
supervise laws such as the present Statute, no further action has
to be taken. However, where no such body exists, it has to be set
The special administrative unit should preferably operate within
the Ministry of Justice (although the Ministry of the Interior is
another reasonable possibility).
(c) Establish a National Tolerance Monitoring Commission as an
independent body – composed of eminent persons from outside
the civil service – vested with the authority to promote
tolerance. The Commission will be empowered to:
Issue general guidelines and specific
recommendations for action.
(ii) Express views regarding the degree to which this
Statute is implemented in practice.
(iii) Disseminate such guidelines, recommendations and
views through the media and otherwise.
(iv) Foster international cooperation with similar bodies in
The thrust of paragraphs (b) and (c) is the existence of two national
bodies entrusted with the implementation of the present Statute.
The first body (referred to in paragraph (b)) is a governmental
department. The second body (established under paragraph (c)) is
external to the Government, acting independently (not unlike a
The independent Commission will be empowered to express its
views regarding implementation of the Statute by all concerned.
Implementation in this context includes (but is not limited to) the
imposition of penal sanctions, education and media coverage.
(iii) The independent Commission will also be empowered to organize
national or international conferences, workshop0s, seminars, etc.
Section 7. Penal Sanctions
(a) The following acts will be regarded as criminal offences
punishable as aggravated crimes:
Hate crimes as defined in Section 1(c).
(ii) Incitement to violence against a group as defined in
(iii) Group libel as defined in Section 1(b).
(iv) Overt approval of a totalitarian ideology, xenophobia
(v) Public approval or denial of the Holocaust.
(vi) Public approval or denial of any other act of genocide
the existence of which has been determined by an
international criminal court or tribunal.
This Sub-Section defines acts punishable as
aggravated crimes. Sub-paragraph (vi) does not affect
public (or private) discussions and differences of
opinion as to whether other acts – not covered by
decisions of international courts or tribunals - also
amount, or fail to amount, to genocide.
(b) Juveniles convicted of committing crimes listed in paragraph (a)
will be required to undergo a rehabilitation programme
designed to instill in them a culture of tolerance.
9(c) Crimes listed in paragraph (a) will not be considered political
offences for purposes of extradition.
(e) Victims of crimes listed in paragraph (a) will have a legal
standing to bring a case against the perpetrators, as well as a
right to redress.
(f) Free legal aid will be offered to victims of crimes listed in
paragraph (a), irrespective of qualification in terms of
Section 8. Education
The Government shall ensure that:
(a) Schools, from the primary level upwards, will introduce courses
encouraging students to accept diversity and promoting a
climate of tolerance as regards the qualities and cultures of
The principle has been accepted for many years (cf. the
Declaration Regarding Intolerance – A Threat to Democracy,
adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of
Europe on 14 May 1981).
It is very important to start such courses as early as possible in
the educational programme, i.e. in elementary school. Yet,
these courses must be offered also at higher levels of education,
up to and including universities.
(b) Similar courses will be incorporated in the training of those
serving in the military and law enforcement agencies.
(c) Training and tolerance awareness courses will be made
available to different strata of society, with an emphasis on
Training must be made available as part of continuing adult
It is especially important to ensure advanced professional
training of lawyers (including judges and criminal justice
personnel), administrators, police officers, doctors, etc.
(d) Teaching materials for tolerance awareness courses (including
syllabi) will be developed by Departments of Education to meet
(e) Instructors will be trained in a manner qualifying them to train
others in tolerance awareness courses.
(f) Departments of Education will ensure that teaching materials in
ordinary courses will be free of any innuendos and slights
directed against any group as defined in Section 1(a).
(g) The production of books, plays, newspapers reports, magazine
articles, films and television programmes – promoting a climate
of tolerance – will be encouraged and, where necessary,
subsidized by the Government.
Section 9. Mass Media
(a) The Government shall ensure that public broadcasting
(television and radio) stations will devote a prescribed
percentage of their programmes to promoting a climate of
tolerance, as per Section 8(f).
(b) (b) The Government shall encourage all privately owned mass
media (including the printed press) to promotea climate of
tolerance, as per Section 8(f).
(c) The Government shall encourage all the mass media (public as
well as private) to adopt an ethical code of conduct, which will
prevent the spreading of intolerance and will be supervised by a
mass media complaints commission.
This is a delicate matter, inasmuch as there is no intention to censor
the media. The media complaints commission is supposed to
consist of independent persons, but it has to be set up by – and
report to - the media themselves, rather than the Government.
There is a related issue of Internet abuse through the spreading if
intolerance. However, initiatives to bring about a legal regulation
11of cyberspace are currently debated in a wider context. It is too
early to speculate how the matter will be resolved.
This text was prepared – under the aegis of the European Council on Tolerance and
Reconciliation – by a Group of Experts composed of Yoram Dinstein (Chair), Ugo
Genesio, Rein Mȕllerson, Daniel Thȕrer and Rȕdiger Wolfrum.